Volume 4 : Issue 2, June 2014 - Part 2

Table of Contents, 15 Jun 2014- Part 2

Research Title/ Field

Article (Abstract)


pii: S232247701400058-4

Design and Explanation of Individual Aspects of Trauma Controlling Organization in Public Sector

Original Research, D58

Vahedi, M. Shekari, H. and Shirazi S.

J. Educ. Manage. Stud., 4(2): 342-349, 2014

ABSTRACT: In an organization design, individual, organizational and environmental aspects are considered. This paper studies individual aspects of organizational trauma controlling organization. First, a questionnaire is designed based on Delphi method and distributed among more than 45 experts. After analyzing its results using LISREL software, required parameters entered to the second round, performed by participation of 43 experts. Among individual aspects, 5 parameters were considered as the main elements and entered to the second round of Delphi method: after event expectations, emotions, characteristics of employees, feeling justice, relationship of employees and employee’s attitude. In second round, the most significant characteristics of each element were selected and ultimately, relationship between elements and their direct and indirect effect was studied using path analysis software. Based on the results of the software individual elements have 0.56 more direct impact on trauma controlling organization in public sector, while this variant has indirect impact of 0.41 in the organization.
Keywords: Trauma; Public Sector; Individual Aspects


pii: S232247701400059-4

Individualized Instruction in Computer-Assisted Instruction

Original Research, D59

Iravani, M.R. Samifar, H. Shekarchi Zade., A.R.

J. Educ. Manage. Stud., 4(2): 350-354, 2014

ABSTRACT: The improvement of instruction has been a goal of educators as far back as the teachings of the Greek philosopher Socrates. There are a wide variety of approaches, in most cases instruction can be characterized by the following tasks: setting objectives, teaching content based on these objectives, and evaluating performance. However, there have been many advocates of alternative approaches. Among the alternative approaches there is a focus on a more individualized approach to instruction, where the traits of the individual learner are given more consideration that is way so many researchers have studied the individualized instruction. Individualized instruction means giving suitable instruction to each student, Individualized instruction has the potential to improve instruction by varying the pace of instruction, the instructional method, and the content. Most approaches allow for self-pacing, yet variation in method and content is rare, and when it does occur, is usually very limited. In this paper the researcher has tried to bring a common face of instruction by individualization approach and define and describe its approach and advantages and also disadvantages of individualized instruction.
Keywords: Individualized Instruction, CAI  


pii: S232247701400060-4

The Comparative Analysis on Mathematical Achievement, Self- efficacy, and Self-concept Based the Perceived Classroom Climate

Original Research, D60

Kakojoibari, A. and Sharifi Saki, Sh.

J. Educ. Manage. Stud., 4(2): 355-363, 2014

ABSTRACT: The current study is aimed at conducting a comparative analysis on mathematical achievement, self- efficacy, and self-concept based on the perceived classroom climate among female and male students. For this purpose, 400 students (222 male and 178female) as respondents from 3rd grade of high school by means of cluster sampling technique(educational regions, high schools, classrooms, and student) and they answered to the questions derived from WIHIC questionnaire, mathematical self- efficacy questionnaire, mathematical self- efficacy inventory, and mathematical Self- concept Description Questionnaire. The results of route analysis indicated that mathematical self-efficacy rate was interpreted as 7% among female’s students and 8% among male students. The variance of mathematical self-concept based the perceived classroom climate was expressed at higher percent in female students than in male group of students (32% versus 26%), while based on the internal variables in this model, the score of mathematics was interpreted as higher among male students than in female group (27% versus 13%). The findings came from route analysis showed that this difference are adjustable by the some variables as mathematical self-efficacy.
Keywords: Mathematics Achievement, Mathematical Self- efficacy, Mathematical Self- concept, Perceived Classroom Climate, Students


pii: S232247701400061-4

The Study on the Impact of Teachers’ Content Producton Their Performance in Schools of Tehran City at Academic Year 2012-2013

Original Research, D61

Norietemad, J.

J. Educ. Manage. Stud., 4(2): 364-369, 2014

ABSTRACT: The present research was conducted to study on effect of teachers’ content product on their performance in schools of Tehran City at academic year 2012-13. The methodology of current study is of applied type in terms of goal and it is of causal- comparative kind in terms of descriptive nature. In this investigation, the statistical population includes all teachers from smart schools, which they have worked at academic year 2012-13. Quantity of sample size was 380 participants so by considering 10% probable loss of testees, 415 questionnaire forms were distributed among the respondents and finally 380 questionnaire forms were collected and analyzed. In order to explore the effect of training of teachers’ content product in this study and with respect to deeply study on theoretical bases and background of research in this regard, the standard questionnaire was formulated with 45 questions in accordance with research objectives. The codified inventory was approved by 10 experts and after implementation of adjustments in 30 questions and trial administration of test among 30 testees the reliability of inventory was calculated as 0.826 by means Cronbach Alpha Coefficient and verified. The results indicated that according to teachers’ view at schools of Tehran City, among variables, the maximum mean value (31.73) belongs to variable of students’ note category and the minimum rate (16.74) is related to variable of designing of question bank from learners’ notes and at the same time training of educational content product might highly affect on improvement in teachers’ performance. But there is no difference among mean value of teachers’ performance of those who had been trained for content product and teachers who had not passed this course and among content product variables, all of them i.e. learners’ note category and scoring learners’ notes, design of question bank, standardization of questions, and teachers’ proficiency affected on using educational technology to improve teachers’ performance to the great extent. Likewise, there is no difference between the comments of female and male teachers concerning to the impact of training educational content product on improvement of teachers’ performance.
Education, Content Product, Performance, Teachers, Smart Schools 


pii: S232247701400062-4

Mental Health Survey of the Adolescence and Adult Population in Iran

Original Research, D62

Rajabi, S. and Dehghani, Y.

J. Educ. Manage. Stud., 4(2): 370-375, 2014

ABSTRACT: The main goal of this study is to determine prevalence of mental disorders among individuals at the age of 15-65 years in Ardabil province. Statistical population of current study is comprised of individuals at 1565 years of age in the urban districts of Ardabil province. In current study the sample size of 1430 individuals who were inhabitant in urban districts of Ardabil province were selected through multistage cluster random sampling. The selected method in this study is survey research type and research design is cross sectional. Used tools in this study are; personal data questionnaire and 28 items GHQ test. This study showed that 27.9 % of studied individuals were suffering from different mental disorders totally. Prevalence rate of mental disorders has been varied from 13.3% (Sarein town) to 44.4% (Germi town). The highest prevalence of mental disorders was pertained to disorder of social performance and anxiety disorders. On the basis of scales of GHQ test prevalence rate of depression, anxiety disorders, somatization disorders and disorder of social performance were 14%, 22.30%, 20% and 32%, respectively. Current study showed that prevalence rate of mental disorders is higher among the females than male (34.4% VS 21.1%).
Anxiety; Depression; Somatization; social performance disorder; Mental Disorders


pii: S232247701400063-4

Masters Students' Views towards the Ratio of Iran IAU-Sari Branch Faculty Members use of Human Relations Index

Original Research, D63

Mirsaidi, G. and Yaghoubi, M.

J. Educ. Manage. Stud., 4(2): 376-380, 2014

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate Masters Students' Views towards the Ratio of IAU-Sari Branch Faculty members' use of human relations index. This research method is descriptive - survey and a sample size were determined 330 people based on Krejcie-Morgan table. In this study, in order to data collection were used the researcher made questionnaire of 40 questions. The analysis showed that in response to the general question of the study, Masters Students' Views Towards the Ratio of IAU-Sari Branch Faculty members use of human relations index, has been relatively high, also, analysis of the result indicated that faculties use of (individual differences, mental health, Understand the need and the capacity to and communicating) variable relatively high. Thus it can be concluded when the faculty members use more of the human relations index, students are motivated and more willing to try to communicate more effectively with them and teaching space become more motivated for them.

Keywords: Human Relations, Faculty members, Students Education, Content Product, Performance, Teachers, Smart Schools 


pii: S232247701400064-4

Comparing Anger Management, Anger Dimensions, and Quality of Life in Methadone Maintenance Treatment Addicts and Non Addicts

Original Research, D64

Tabatabaee, S.M. Moazedian, A. and Noori, H.

J. Educ. Manage. Stud., 4(2): 381-385, 2014

ABSTRACT: The purpose of present research is "The Comparison of Anger Control, Anger Dimension and Quality of Life in Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) Addicts and Non Addicts. Method of research was fundamental research and casual comparative (expose facto). The research population consisted of all males who suffered from substance abuse in Shahrood who have visited clinic for treatment substance abuse in 2013 year. Statistical sample of present study include 150 addict males and 150 non addict males that have chosen from four clinic from Shahrood city. The sampling method was accidental (available). Subjects replied to the Silberberg Anger Questionnaire STAXI-2, and quality of life questionnaire for Varosherobon. Multivariate variance test were used to analyze the finding of hypothesis. The findings indicated there were not significant differences between addict males and non-addict males regarding anger dimensions and there were significant differences between addict males and also non addict males regarding anger control and quality of life addict males and non-addict males.
Keywords: Anger Control, Anger Dimension, Quality of Life, Methadone Maintenance Treatment


pii: S232247701400065-4

Identifying the Effective Factors on Achievement of Smart Schools by Review of the Status Quo and Problems in Smarts Schools

Original Research, D65
Mirsaidi, G. and Yaghoubi, M.

J. Educ. Manage. Stud., 4(2): 386-390, 2014

ABSTRACT:The current investigation is intended to identify the effective factors on achievement in Smart Schools via study on the existing condition and problems in smart schools within Tehran City. The studied statistical population includes all principals from smart schools at Tehran city and master and mid- rank experts from Training and Education Organization (TEO). Method of this study is of survey type and questionnaire has been used as a tool to gather information where the validity of this test was confirmed by advisor teachers and master professors and some experienced instructors while the reliability of data collection tool was measured by Cronbach Alpha Coefficient. Time period of implementation of this study was the second half of 2010 and this research was carried out in smart schools from Tehran city as the spatial domain. Ten hypotheses were purposed in this study i.e. five hypotheses about identification of effective factors on achievement of smart schools and the rest five hypotheses concerned with the existing condition in each of the aforesaid factors within smart schools at Tehran City. The resultant findings from student t- test indicated that all five studied factors, including environmental, cultural, executive s and learners’, hardware and network as well as software and digital factors, affected on achievement of smart schools at 95% level of confidence, according to respondents’ comment. Similarly, in review of the status quo within smart schools, according to respondents’ view, cultural factors are in appropriate condition at 95% level of confidence while executives and learners, hardware and network, and software and digital factors are not in suitable conditions and also environmental factors are at average level.  

Keywords: Smart Schools, Evaluation, Information Technology (IT)


pii: S232247701400066-4

Foster Self-esteem in Adolescents: Lipmann Approach

Original Research, D66

Tajali Nia, A.

J. Educ. Manage. Stud., 4(2): 391-396, 2014

ABSTRACT:The purpose of the present study is examination of the impact of the program “philosophy for children” (p4c) on foster self-esteem in high school students in the first grade of district 14 of Tehran. This research was carried out using semi-empirical method and utilizing the research design of preliminary and final test with control group and without use of randomly selection. All students in the first grade of high school of district 14 of Tehran in 2013-2014 formed population of the study that among them 60 subjects were selected as sample through multi-stage cluster sampling (n = 30 for control group and n=30 for experimental group). After holding desired training course, the cooper smith self-esteem questionnaire was used to data collection, and to analyze the data, analysis method of covariance was used. In general, findings of the study confirmed credibility and reliability of the philosophy for children program in foster self-esteem in adolescents and its four components namely; general self-esteem, family self-esteem, social self-esteem and education self-esteem.
Keywords: Self-esteem, Philosophy for Children, Investigation Ring


pii: S232247701400067-4

An Examination into the Elementary Schools Teachers' Viewpoint on the Role of Assistant Principal within the Enacted Curriculum

Original Research, D67
Mahdavi, N.

J. Educ. Manage. Stud., 4(2): 397-402, 2014

ABSTRACT:The present research has employed a qualitative approach with phenomenological method to assess the viewpoint of teachers on the role of assistant principals in the enacted curriculum. The research sample comprised 20 teachers who were selected through the purposive sampling from among the elementary school teachers working in the 12th borough of Tehran with an educational degree of higher than diploma and long tenure of at least 10 years. Findings based on cognition, emotion and preparation for performing the activities related to the educational assistant principals that have been acquired with interview indicate the supervisory role of assistant principals in the enacted curriculum. Teachers contend that assistant principals supervise the classes and examine the teachers'-made tests and suchlike to become aware of the educational curriculum through employing the order and reaction control methods. Teachers do not evaluate this method as effective due to the lack of the experience of assistant principals in different grades, the occupational incompetency and so on. Therefore, the order control is not evaluated as positive method to control the accurate implement of the curriculum. The cognition of such experience produced negative effects in teachers’ emotional aspect and their interaction with principal assistants which was evaluated as negative. Furthermore, the emotional and cognitive aspects of teachers establish the required preparation to accept the assistant principals' activities. Teachers do not value assistant principals' roles in enhancing the quality of education and particularly, handling the problem. They do not also support the supervisory techniques of assistant principals and believe that accurate supervision is acquired through expertise, and adequate level of educational experience in different grades and awareness of supportive methods. What’s more, the teachers' informants evaluated the assistant principals' educational activities as positive owing to their sufficient experience in all the grades and their dominance over the lessons like science and mathematics. They contend that these activities are influential factors in encouraging the teachers to employ innovative methods and avoid the traditional methods.

Keywords: Enacted Curriculum, Role, Viewpoint, Assistant Principal


pii: S232247701400068-4

 Examining the Relationship between Knowledge Management and Organizational Intelligence in Tax Affairs Organization of Tehran

Original Research, D68

Nazem, F Sajadian, S.M. and Malek Shahi, A.

J. Educ. Manage. Stud., 4(2): 403-409, 2014

ABSTRACT:The main purpose of this research is to survey the relationship between the social capital and knowledge management with organizational intelligence in the Tax Affairs of Tehran. The method of the study - description - is from the kind of the correlation. The statistical population of this research consists of the whole staff personal of the Tax Affairs of Tehran that is almost 700 persons. The statistical sample of this research is 361 persons that are selected by the method of the cluster sampling of the multistage. The Measurement instruments include of Karl Albrecht’s standard questionnaire with reliability (0.96) for organizational intelligence and Sallies and Jones’s standard questionnaire with a reliability (0.96) for knowledge management and Khodayar Abili’s standard questionnaire with a reliability 0.96) for social capital. For the analyzing of the data is used by the descriptive and presumptive statistic that is used in the part of the descriptive one from index, middle and average and in the part of the presumptive one from the multivariate linear regression. The obtained results show that there is a relation between the social capital and organizational intelligence a reliability coefficient of 0.54 and between the knowledge management and organizational intelligence reliability coefficient of 0.81 and also between the social capital and knowledge management with the organizational intelligence a reliability coefficient of 0.82 in the Tax Affairs of Tehran. Also, the leadership and management components, learning organization, relative and recognitive capital can predict the organization intelligence.
Keywords: Social capital, Knowledge management, Organizational intelligence


pii: S232247701400069-4

The Relationship between Financial Capital and Abnormal Yield in Newly-Arrived Companies in Tehran Stock Exchange

Original Research, D69
Barati, S. and Abdoli, M.

J. Educ. Manage. Stud., 4(2): 410-414, 2014

ABSTRACT:Business and commercial units play significant role in economic structure of a country. Today, business units as main pillars of economic in countries consider a large volume of economic resources such as work force, material and capital and according to sale and produce volume, they have important role in economic progress and development in the countries. The main goal of this article is surveying relationship between financial capital and abnormal yield in investment companies in Tehran Stock Exchange. In this study, 106 companies from different industries were analyzed between 2007 to 2012 years. F and T statistics were used to test the hypotheses. Watson–Dorbin test was also used to test correlation model. The results indicate that there is a significant positive relationship between economic added value, residual income and book value with abnormal yield of stock in newly-arrived companies to Stock Exchange.

Keywords: Financial capital, Abnormal yield, Economic added value, Residual income


pii: S232247701400070-4

 The Relationship between Religious Beliefs, Optimism and Moral Health of the University Students

Original Research, D70

Zakery, J. Makari, R. Pir Cheraghali, A. and Zahedi, O.

J. Educ. Manage. Stud., 4(2): 415-419, 2014

ABSTRACT:The target of the current study is to assess the relationship between religious beliefs & optimism and moral health of the students of Martyr Mofatteh Pardis University of Farhangian of Shahr-e-Rey. The sample is 200 students, gathered by clustered accidental sampling. To measure the variables, Arian religious questionnaire, ASQ optimism test and moral health benchmark were used and to analyze the data, Pierson cohesion test and multivariable regression were used. The results showed that there is a meaningful relation between religious beliefs and moral health. The results of the multivariable regression showed that the variables of religious beliefs and optimism, respectively, were the factors of forecasting the moral health.
Keywords: Religious beliefs, Optimism, Moral health


pii: S232247701400071-4

Investigating the Impact of Restated Financial Statements on Persistence of Financial Performance of the Companies Listed in the Tehran Stock Exchange

Original Research, D71
Khatibzadeh, P. Abdoli, M. and Dehdar. F.

J. Educ. Manage. Stud., 4(2): 420-424, 2014

ABSTRACT:The present research investigates the relationship between the restated accounting figures and persistence of financial performance of the companies listed in the Tehran Stock Exchange. In order to measure the persistence of financial performance three ratios of quick ratio, leverage ratio, and profit margin ratio are used. To measure the value of restated figures, the difference between the absolute value of reported current asset and restated current asset, and between the reported current liability and restated current liability, and between the reported profit and restated profit are used. The statistical population includes 79 member companies of the Tehran stock exchange and the time period is between 2007 and 2011. The applied statistical model is simple and multi-variate regression. The results show that there is not solely significant relationship between the absolute value of restated current asset, current liability and profit, and the persistence of financial performance. The results also show that when the financial leverage enters into the model as a control variable, the significant relationship is created between absolute value of restated current asset in the first hypothesis, and the absolute value of restated profit in the third hypothesis and the persistence of financial performance in the domain of assets and profit, so that both factors have positive relationship with the persistence of financial performance. It means that by increasing accounting changes, the persistence of financial performance increases, while increasing financial leverage results in reduction of the persistence of financial performance.

Keywords: Restated Financial Statement, Persistence of Financial Performance


pii: S232247701400072-4

Earnings Management and Intellectual Capital

Original Research, D72

Galdipour,  S.  Rahimiyan,  F.  Etemad,  A. and  Panahi, H.

J. Educ. Manage. Stud., 4(2): 425-428, 2014

ABSTRACT:The present study aims to investigate the relationship between intellectual capital, its development and earnings management in listed companies on Tehran Stock Exchange. Target population of this research is consisting of  all  listed  companies  on  Tehran  Stock  Exchange.  Research  sampling  was  conducted  based  on  simple  random sampling, and 121 companies were chosen over a period extending from 2006 to 2012. Using the modified Jones
model,  discretionary  accruals  were  applied  as  the  criterion  for  determining  earnings  management,  and  research hypotheses  were  tested  applying  regression  model.  They  were  assessed  utilizing  synthetic  data  and  regression analysis. The achieved findings indicated that earnings management and intellectual capital are significantly related to each other, but there is no significant relationship between intellectual capital and intellectual capital development.
Keywords: Intellectual Capital, Intellectual Capital Development, Earnings Management


pii: S232247701400073-4

Educational Services Quality Analysis

Original Research, D73
Baghdarnia, M. and Arash, M.

J. Educ. Manage. Stud., 4(2): 429-435, 2014

ABSTRACT:The goal of this study was to determine gaps in perceptions and expectations of students in University of Tehran using Service Quality Model (SERVQUAL) in 2012 based on a descriptive-analytical study. Study population consisted of all students in various majors at Tehran University. The participants were selected based on a multistage sampling. In the first stage, participants were chosen from each school according to ratio-stratified sampling, and then subjects  were  selected  randomly  in  each  stratum.  Sample  size  was  given  as  205  regarding  95%  confidence,  0.8 standard  deviation  and  0.1  accuracy.  SERVQUAL  standard  questionnaire  was  used  for  data  collection.  Data  was analyzed via inferential statistical methods including Pearson  Correlation coefficient, t-test and Wilcoxon Test using SPSS. The results showed a gap in all five educational service dimensions. The least gap average was seen in the tangibility dimensions (5.81) and the highest gap average was for confidence (9). There was a significant difference between  students  perceptions  and  expectations  (quality  gap)  in  all  five  service  dimensions  (P<0.001).  Students satisfaction  played  a  significant  role  in  the  improved  educational  service  quality,  thus  it  should  be  attempted  to eliminate or mitigate gaps in current and optimal statuses.

Keywords: Educational service; Student University; Quality; Seroquel


pii: S232247701400074-4

Performance Measurement based on the Created Value Added by using the
Balanced Scorecard

Original Research, D74
Sherafat,  A.VatankhahTafti, A.  and Davoodi, S.M.

J. Educ. Manage. Stud., 4(2): 436-444, 2014

ABSTRACT:There are various methods developed for the performance evaluation. Most of the measurement models employ scoring methods. However, the factory owners and even the top executives are interested in evaluating their performance by more tangible measures such as financial achievements. Scoring measures might be appropriate and applicable measures for the experts but they might not be perceived by the owners of the factories. Value added is the  most  important  index  by  which  the  real  performance  of  the  organization  is  represented.  The  present study developed a unique model for calculating value added based on the characteristics and specifications of the projectbased service organizations. The effectiveness of each department in creating value added by the organization is essential, because different departments have various impacts on organization's performance. In doing so, Balanced Scorecard and brainstorm methods are used to determine the role of each department in creating value added.
Keywords:Performance Evaluation, Value Added, Balanced Scorecard, Project based Organization


pii: S232247701400075-4

Internet and Social Development in Teens

Original Research, D75
Aslani, N.

J. Educ. Manage. Stud., 4(2): 445-448, 2014

ABSTRACT:The basic  objective of the present study is review the role of using of the internet on Social growth of guidance school students. All students of Non-government schools in region 4 of Tehran education in 2011-2012 school years have formed Statistical populations for this study. With random sampling through the mentioned schools a school was chosen and using end-groups method were selected 15 students who had allowed them to use the Internet and 15 students who had not allowed them to use the Internet. Then using compatibility questionnaires, were measured the adolescent social self-efficacy scale and a researcher made questionnaire about the use or non-use of the Internet by related variables students and it was found that the use of Internet has not significant effects on social growth including compatibility and the spirit of cooperation and collaboration But the rise of Internet use time is reduced compatibility.

Keywords:Internet, Social adjustment, Spirit of cooperation and collaboration.


pii: S232247701400076-4

Investigate the Effect the Philosophy for Children program (p4c) on Reducing Trait Anger in Teens

Original Research, D76
Tajali Nia,A.

J. Educ. Manage. Stud., 4(2): 449-455, 2014

ABSTRACT:The purpose of the present  study is investigate the effect the Philosophy for Children program (p4c) on reducing trait anger in the first grade for son high school students in Tehran . This research was performed in the semiempirical method and using research design of preliminary  and final test with control group and without the use of randomly selection. The population of the study were all students in the first grade of for son high school in Tehran in2013-2012  academic  year  that  among  them,  60  people  were  selected  as  the  samples  through  cluster  multi-stage sampling (N = 30 control group and 30 experimental group). After holding the desired training course, to data collection was used Spielberger emotions mood expressing and anger personality traits questionnaire (STAXI-2) and covariance analysis method applied to analyze the data. In general, the findings of the study had confirmed validity and reliability of  Philosophy  for  children  program  in  reducing  anger  trait  of  adolescents  and  its  two  components,  namely,  angry temperament and furious reaction. Keywords:Anger, Trait anger, Philosophy for Children, Ring investigation


pii: S232247701400077-4

Strengthening Mathematical Learning with Class Atmosphere and Design in Elementary

Original Research, D77
Nazeri, R. Sharifi Saki, S. and Othman, N.

J. Educ. Manage. Stud., 4(2): 456-459, 2014

ABSTRACT:Engagement in mathematics should be expected of all students, and the learning environment should be one where students are actively involved in doing mathematics. Challenging problems should be posed and students should be expected to work on them individually and in groups, sometimes for extended periods of time, and sometimes on unfamiliar topics. They should be encouraged to develop traits  and  strategies such  as  perseverance,  cooperative  work  skills,  self-assessment,  self-confidence, decision-making, and risk-taking which will be key to their success in mathematics. No need to say that class  atmosphere  plays  important  role  for  students  and  encourage  and  discourage  them  for  study,  in particular mathematics. Children are naturally curious about themselves and their environment. A natural way with which they try to satisfy their curiosity is to ask questions. The main theme of this regular lecture is to argue that student questioning should be made a stronger part of classroom teaching and learning of mathematics than is currently practiced in many countries. It is not very easy for teachers just with the talking gain the student attractions in mathematic classes. Mathematic is science, literature, geography or history that teacher be able to create a story. This research shows ideally, to promote student engagement in  learning,  two  sets  of  factors  must  align.  The  first  set  of  factors  include  that  the  students  have  the requisite prior knowledge, the curriculum is relevant to them, the classroom tasks interest them, and the
pedagogies and assessment regimes match their expectations. The second set of factors relate to their goals for learning, their willingness to persist, and the extent to which they see participation in schooling as creating opportunities.

Keywords:Mathematic, Student, Classroom, Curriculum, Learning


pii: S232247701400078-4

Field Dependence-  Independence, Cognitive Styles, English Reading Comprehension
Skill, English Language Learning, and Educational Achievement

Original Research, D78
Yaghoubi, M.  Inanloo, A.  and  Hamedi, A.

J. Educ. Manage. Stud., 4(2): 460-464, 2014

ABSTRACT:The current research is intended to examine on relationship among Field dependence- Independence (FDI) cognitive  styles  and  English  text  comprehension  skill,  English  language  learning,  an  educational  achievement.Accordingly, 305 female and male students from third grade high school classes were chosen by means of multi- stage random technique among the students from schools in Region 2 in Sari City, Iran and they responded to questions in Group Embedded Figure Test (GEFT). Their scores during first semester of academic year 2010-11 were extracted in the field of reading comprehension for English exam, total score of this test and their GPA in all lessons from exam sheets and classrooms score lists. Data analysis done by regression analysis indicates that FDI cognitive style interprets 8.8,
9.2,  and  11.6%  variances  for  dependent  variables  (scores  of  reading  comprehension,  English  learning,  and  GPA) respectively. In other words, the more independent the cognitive style is, the higher English text comprehension, English language learning and educational achievement will be.

Keywords:Learning, Cognitive Styles, Reading Comprehension, Educational Achievement


pii: S232247701400079-4

Effectiveness of Mindfulness and Counseling on the Stress Reduction in Drug Relapse

Original Research, D79
Hamedi, A.  Shahidi, Sh.  and Khademi, A.

J. Educ. Manage. Stud., 4(2): 465-472, 2014

ABSTRACT: The present study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of mindfulness in the prevention of drug relapse. Method: Using a  quasi-experimental  design, 90 male drug abusers who had undergone detoxification were selected from among all detoxified individuals referred to drug rehabilitation centers in the City of Tehran. Patients were placed randomly in three groups: Mindfulness training intervention, Behavioral drug reduction counseling (BDRC) and a control group in which no intervention was applied. Diagnosis of drug abuse was made using structured clinical interview for diagnosing axis I disorders on DSMIV (SCID-I) as well as tests to measure morphine levels in the blood. Fisher test was used to compare groups.  Patients were assessed two weeks and two months after the intervention as follow  up  measure.  Results:  Results  show  that  both  intervention  groups  were  effective  in  preventing  relapse  as compared to the control group (p<0.05). Furthermore, the effectiveness  of mindfulness training and BDRC was about the  same.  There  were  no  significant  differences  between  patients  with  and  without  experience  of  drug  abuse  and married and single patients. Conclusions: Both mindfulness training and BDRC may be considered effective practical methods in reducing the risk of relapse in male drug abusers.

Keywords:Mindfulness training,Behavioral Drug Reduction Counseling, Drug Abuse


pii: S232247701400080-4

Psychological  Capital  and  Its  Relationship  to  Work  Attitudes  in  Imam  Khomeini  Shazand  Oil  Refining

 Original Research, D80
Ghaffaripour,  SH.

J. Educ. Manage. Stud., 4(2): 473-482, 2014

ABSTRACT:Growing  demands  in  finding  new  strategies  to  maximize  organizational  effectiveness  have  resulted  in development  of  positive  organizational  sciences.  Psychological  Capital  is  a  core  construct  consisting  of  the  positive psychological resources of efficacy, hope, optimism, and resilience. This exploratory survey research study examined hypothesized relationships between psychological capital to the perceived organizational support, job satisfaction and affective commitment. The three general hypotheses were developed and data was collected from 300 personnel who were  randomly  chosen  from  various  departments  of  Imam  Khomeini  Shazand  Oil  Refining  Company.  The instrumentation of the study, which was a paper-and-pencil questionnaire based on 5-point Likert item from "strongly disagree" to "strongly agree". Collected data were analyzed via Pearson correlation test by SPSS software. The findings indicated  statistically  significant  relationship  existed  between  psychological  capital  with  perceived  organizational support, job satisfaction and affective commitment.

Keywords:Affective organizational Commitment, Job Satisfaction, Perceived Organizational Support


pii: S232247701400081-4

The effect of Information Asymmetry on the Cost of Equity Capital in Listed Companies on
Tehran Stock Exchange

Original Research, D81
Imani,  F.,  Abdoli,  M.R.,  Dehdar  F.

J. Educ. Manage. Stud., 4(2): 483-487, 2014

ABSTRACT:The present study aims to assess the relationship between information asymmetry and the cost  of equity capital in listed companies on Tehran Stock Exchange, over a period extending from 2006 to the end of 2011. The cost of  equity  capital  is  considered  as  a  part  of  the  cost  of  capital,  which  is  the  minimum  expected  return  on  equity. Ordinary shareholders expect an appropriate return, since they take investment risks. Information risk is a component of investment risk which affects the cost of capital. Information asymmetry is also a significant index for information risk. The effect of information asymmetry on the cost of equity capital was assessed in 106 listed companies on Tehran Stock Exchange from 2006 to the end of 2011.  Simple and multiple regression models were employed in order for testing  the  research  hypotheses.  The  obtained  findings  indicate  that  there  is  no  significant  relationship  between information asymmetry and the cost of equity capital; however, this hypothesis can be confirmed in case of utilizing control variables.

Keywords:Information asymmetry, equity capital, bid-ask price, Inappropriate choice


pii: S232247701400082-4

Evaluation of Particle Swarm Algorithm Performance In Optimal Portfolio Selection

 Original Research, D82
Fakherinia, M. Zarranezhab, M. and Yousefi Hajiabad, R.

J. Educ. Manage. Stud., 4(2): 488-495, 2014

ABSTRACT:This research aims to evaluate the optimum portfolio selection using with particle swarm algorithm. For this purpose, the financial information of companies listed on the Iran stock exchange, during years 2007 to 2012 is collected and using heuristic particle swarm algorithm and based on Markowitz model, mean-variance model and client risk model, generating optimal portfolio from the stocks has been investigated. In total, the results of this study showed that use of this algorithm can provide solutions both close together and close to optimality, and causes confidence of the investors' investment for making decisions. Also, based on the response obtained by performing several experiments it can be claimed that in Markowitz and mean-variance models can provide most optilam portfolio. In other hands, particle swarm algorithm is best in client risk model. Most observations reflect the fact that in the problems which are with complexity and size increases, the particle swarm algorithm perform better.

Keywords:Particle Swarm algorithm, Markowitz Model, Mean -Variance Model, Client Risk Model


pii: S232247701400083-4

Preliminary Evaluation of the Core Competencies in the Curriculum of Undergraduate Elementary Education

 Original Research, D83
Ahmadi, S. and Khezri, H.

J. Educ. Manage. Stud., 4(2): 496-499, 2014

ABSTRACT:The main question in this research was the identification of core competencies in the field of elementary education in order to design and develop a competency-based curriculum. Order to identify core competencies and define the dimensions and elements of competencies for designing primary curriculum programs framework was used conceptual analysis method. In this study, academic resources, previous research, scientific databases and Internet search, reviewed and analyzed. The results showed that the set of moral, scientific, research, psychological, and management competences should be considered as a basis for formulating curriculum objectives of primary education. Competencies-based curriculum in the field of primary education, regardless of the set of core competencies, will have not the desired effectiveness to train professionals needed to improve education.

Keywords:Elementary Education, Core Competencies, Competency-based curriculum, Higher Education.


pii: S232247701400084-4

The  Effects  of  Cooperative  Education  on  the  Social  Intelligence  of Primary School Students Looking at Social Reconstruction Approach

 Original Research, D84
Dehvand, F.  and Yazdani, F

J. Educ. Manage. Stud., 4(2): 500-504, 2014

ABSTRACT:This  research  aimed  the  effects  of  cooperative  education  on  the  social  intelligence  of  primary  school students looked at social reconstruction approach in curriculum was performed.  For this, 60 subjects of fifth grade elementary female students in district  3 the education schools of Isfahan city in the academic year 2012-2013 were selected randomly and assigned to two control and experimental groups. All subjects of both groups completed two stages of pre and posttest questionnaire Selva social intelligence. The experimental group received the training about the  study  topic  during  six  90-minute  sessions  and  then  posttest  was  performed.  Data  were  analyzed  using  both descriptive  and  inferential  level.  The  results  showed  that  there  is  a  significant  relationship  between  cooperative education and increasing social intelligence of student. The data analysis using covariance analysis tests significant level of P<0.05 Showed that cooperative education has positive effects on increasing social intelligence of students looking at the reconstruction approach to social reconstruction. According to the results of this study could be suggested to holding cooperative education workshops at the same grade of primary school of students.

Keywords:Cooperation,  social  intelligence,  social  skills,  social  awareness,  social  information  processing,  social reconstruction


pii: S232247701400085-4

Comparison  of  Principals’  Critical  Thinking  of  the  Elementary  School,
Guidance and High School for Girls in Islamshahr City

 Original Research, D85
Araghieh,  A.  Baradaran, M.  and Shafaii, S.

J. Educ. Manage. Stud., 4(2): 505-508, 2014

ABSTRACT:The general objective of this study is comparison of  managers’  critical  thinking of  the elementary school, guidance and high school for girls in Islamshahr city. The statistical society of this study is formed all school principals in elementary school, guidance and high school of the ISLAMSHAHR city that their number is 140 people. The samples size of  the study  included103 people who were selected classical randomly. To collect information was used 34 questions questionnaires of the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (Form B) (CCTST). This research is a descriptive study and is considered the element of survey plans assumptions. In present study the validity of the questionnaire was calculated using Cronbach's alpha. The mentioned questionnaire has been implemented on sample group and has been done by analysis of One-way variance (Anova) and (Tuky) test and the results of data analysis showed that the critical thinking among elementary and high school principals in the field of analysis, there are significant differences.

Keywords: critical thinking, analysis, evaluation, inference, deductive reasoning, inductive reasoning


pii: S232247701400086-4

Interclass  Comparisons  of  the  Association  between  Some  Contextual Variables and Mathematics Achievement: Results from TIMSS 2007

Original Research, D86
Nuri,  N.  Amini, M.  and Naghsh, N.

J. Educ. Manage. Stud., 4(2): 509-513, 2014

ABSTRACT:The goals of this study was investigation of relationships between mathematics achievement and some contextual  variables  at  the  school  level  and  student  level  and  examination  of  the  percentage  of  each  of  levels  in explaining total student mathematics achievement variance. In order to conduct this international education study, the Trends in Mathematics and Science Study 2007 eighth-grade student and school dataset of Iran was used. Our analysis focused on the Iranian sample that included 3978 students from 208 schools. The variables used in this analysis exist in two levels: the student level (level 1): students' attitude, self-efficacy, gender and the school level (level 2): school climate, parental involvement, and grouping.  Two-level hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to explore the relationship between student mathematics achievement and the hypothesized predictors in this analysis. The results indicated that the relationship between mathematics achievement and self-efficacy is positive but relationship between mathematics achievements with attitude is negative at the individual level. The relationships between mathematics achievement with climate  and  grouping  at  the  school  level  are  positive  too.  The  results  showed  that  the  school  level  accounts  for  a significant amount of variability of student mathematics achievement.

Keywords:students'  attitude,  self-efficacy,  gender,  school  climate,  parental  involvement,  and  grouping, TIMSS 2007, HLM.


pii: S232247701400087-4

The Prediction of Divorce through Mental Disorders and Demographic Characteristic


 Original Research, D87
Cheraghi, A. Ahmadi-mehr, Z, Zarei, F. Shahmoradi, Gh. Manafi, S.D. Madani-pour, A. and Eskandari, Z.

J. Educ. Manage. Stud., 4(2): 514-518, 2014

ABSTRACT:The purpose of this research was to discover the prediction of divorce between Zanjan  couples based on mental  disorders  and  demographic  characteristics.  The  research  design  was  casual–comparative.  As  divorce  prone couples, 60 males and females (30 couples), were selected who were initially referred to divorce crisis Intervention Centre in  Zanjan. As for normal couples sampling, 30 students from Zanjan schools, whose parents were members of normal couples, were selected. The Inventories were SCL-90 and demographic Questionnaire. From the dimensions of SCL-90, the groups were significantly different at all (p<0.05). The results of Logistic Regression analysis for SCL -90 showed that overall Somatization, depression and paranoid significantly predicted divorce in couples. So Somatization, depression and paranoid  increase  the  probability  of  divorce.  Also  results  of  Logestic  Regression  analysis  for  demographic  variables showed  that  increasing  the  number  of  children,  income  and  the  education  decrease  it.  The  findings  underline  the importance of mental disorders and demographic characteristics in divorce.

Keywords: Divorce, mental disorders, demographic Characteristics.